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The first point of overseas contact with a US government official occurs at the US Embassy. Foreigners appear before a US Consular officer at some type of visa interview.
Q: What are my rights as a visa applicant?
A: A visa applicant should expect to be treated with courtesy. One doesn’t have the array of rights that one has either at the border or within the US. If your visa is denied you are entitled to have an explanation of why it was denied.
Q: If I am a U.S. citizen and appear at the US Embassy do I have any rights?
A: A US citizen should ask to speak with someone in US citizen services. One of the primary purposes of the Consular Section at the Embassy is to assist US citizens in distress and to connect them with legal services when they need them.
Q: What are my rights if I am a Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR, aka “green card” holder) when I am outside of the U.S. and seek to be admitted to the U.S.?
A: Since your permanent residency cannot be taken away without some type of fair procedure, you are at a minimum entitled to come back to the US to seek admission.
Q: What are my rights if I am a U.S. immigrant visa holder when I am outside of the U.S. and seek to be admitted to the U.S.?
A: A person in possession of an immigrant visa has a travel document that enables them to travel to the U.S. When the person arrives they present their documents for admission. While you are not automatically entitled to admission, you are entitled to a hearing. These rights are contained in the statute and are not constitutional rights.